/Google I/O 2013 – IGNITE

Google I/O 2013 – IGNITE

Video: Google I/O 2013 – IGNITE

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BRADY FORREST: Hi I'm Brady Forrest, and welcome to Ignite. [APPLAUSE] BRADY FORREST: Unfortunately, we don't have beer this year. You can bring that up with the management. But I'm just thrilled to be here anyway. And how are you all enjoying I/O? I hope you are ready for just kind of a Gatling gun of ideas. We have a great set of speakers today to kind of round out the second day of I/O. And believe you me, these people will enlighten you. And what these– in case you haven't been to an Ignite before, what we have here is a series of five minute presentations, where each speaker gets just five minutes on stage. They get 20 slides.

They get 15 seconds a slide. And just like me, they have no control over those slides. And so it makes it for a little bit more frenetic– a little more fun if they're drunk– which they're not. We didn't bring whiskey– but it has its charms anyway. And we've got a great selection of content tonight. Now Ignite, if you haven't heard of it before, is in over 200 cities around the world. So I encourage you to go home and participate in your local one or start one. Now our 13 speakers are going to cover topics as diverse as the Shenzhen hardware ecosystem, the Marvel data– Marvel Comics, that is, and the rise K-Pop. Now, a good friend of mine who actually spoke at the very first Ignite, is here to talk about better living through Bluetooth. Please welcome Dan Shapiro. DAN SHAPIRO: Thank you Brady. So I got this amazing headband. You put it on.

It has these little silver eye sensors. It measures the microvolt signals coming off of your brain and the twitch from your eye muscles, sends to your phone via Bluetooth, where there's a neural network that decodes them and puts them up in a graph. It's called a Zeo. And it basically knows if you're sleeping, it knows if you're awake– It's like Santa Claus in a box. It can tell you your sleep over the course of a whole night. I got this for my dad. He wanted to learn more about his sleep habits. Unfortunately, what he learned about his sleep is that he's in the habit of grabbing the thing off his head in the middle of the night and throwing it against the wall very vigorously. So he never got too much from it. But I thought it was amazing. I actually have trouble falling asleep– always have.

And so I wound up getting all this data every morning. I could tell what the phases of sleep were, if I woke up, how long– and what I learned was, I always thought it took me an hour to fall asleep. It actually only took me half an hour to fall asleep. And this was magical. Because once I knew it, I started falling asleep in 15 minutes because I wasn't stressed out anymore. And once I started falling asleep in 15 minutes I started going to bed earlier, because hey, I didn't, like, postpone it because I thought I was going be tossing and turning. It was awesome. So just by getting the data, I wound up sleeping better. And as the nights wore on I wound up having more REM sleep, more deep sleep, and longer nights of sleep, even though I wasn't doing any, like, bedtime setting craziness– nothing like that. I was just following the data. So more data. I went to my doctor and I said I want to get a sleep study. This is where they strap 20 electrodes on your skull.

They measure your arm motion, your leg motion, your respirometry– the whole thing. And it turns out I have something called sleep apnea, which basically means I stop breathing in the middle of the night. So I get this sweet jet fighter mask that I get to wear every evening that prevents the heart damage that comes from sleep apnea, and actually helps me sleep better. I was talking about this with my friend Matt, who also had a sleep study, and he said, you know, my sponsor for my latest video is this company up in the corner called 23andMe. You should send them a cup of your spit. Because these guys actually measure your chromosomes, and tell you all sorts of interesting stuff about yourself. So I drooled into a little cup, shipped it off to them, and it was amazing. I learned I'm predisposed to heroin addiction. I learned I'm a descendant from the Cohen tribe of Israel. I learned that I'm at seriously elevated risk of dandruff– 3 and 1/2 times the normal person's risk. But the thing that was most interesting was I learned I'm a fast caffeine metabolizer.

Now, I've never been a coffee drinker, which is kind of a shame. Because coffee is like vitamin C. The more research that's done, the longer the list of things that coffee seems to prove to prevent– Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, cavities for Pete's sake. This stuff is miraculous. One problem. Coffee tends to lead to heart attacks. But not for fast caffeine metabolizers. Fast caffeine metabolizers who drink coffee regularly in moderation actually experience fewer heart attacks than the general population. Sweet. So now I'm drinking coffee every day. That was easy. At work they offered to give us this health workup. They give you a yellow, red, or green for all sorts of different attributes. I did it and I don't eat particularly– I eat a lot and I don't like to exercise, so I thought it was going bad. They basically came back and said, Dan, you should lose some weight. OK, wait. This isn't like LDL cholesterol. This is physics.

This is mass. I can measure this. So I bought a Bluetooth scale. Every morning I stand on the Bluetooth scale. It sends the weight to my phone– to the web– and the weirdest thing happened– data. Change started happening. I started losing weight. I didn't go on a fancy diet. A friend of mine at work started going vegan at the same time, and he dropped weight a lot faster than I did. But the man was miserable. I was losing weight just by watching what was going on. OK. Well wait. Let's try exercise. I've never held an exercise regime in my life but this little thing, this Bluetooth pedometer cost $50. I've got one in my pocket, gave a half dozen to my friends and coworkers, and I've gone from walking an average of about 2,500 steps a day to 8,500 steps a day just by watching the email that comes out every week that makes fun of me for not walking enough when my friends are doing more than I am. So, I'm sleeping better.

I'm eating better. I'm drinking more coffee, which I've learned is a good thing, and I've lost weight. I am not a health guru. I am no fitness expert. I am not going to tell you how to live your life. But there is something I want to suggest to you. If there is some aspect of your life that you would like to change, you could do a lot worse than finding some gadget that can measure it for you. Thank you very much. [APPLAUSE] PETER OLSON: Hi. As I wait for the slides. My name's Peter Olson. I work for Marvel Entertainment. Some of you may have heard of this company. And I'm going to talk to you today about the challenges of finding structure and meaning in very complicated data sets– say a data set that has been put together by hundreds of writers, artists, editors over the course of 70 years.

Now, a lot of you probably deal with very important real world data sets, and I'm hoping that our exploration into fictional data sets is of some use to you. Now comic universes are amazing places. People can fly. They can survive lethal doses of radiation. Southern accents sound like that. But they do not lend themselves to structure. But in order to represent a universe and the bibliographical things that contain it, you need structure, you need data, you need schemas, you need semantics, you need data types, and you need a shared understanding of how entities behave in the universe you're looking at. And I believe personally that data is actually part of the comic's experience. If you've ever been in an argument over whether Wolverine could beat Sabertooth, or Batman could beat Superman– and I've bet a lot of you have– you've been in an argument about data.

Data also gives us new and interesting ways at looking at fiction. This is a graph representation of the Marvel Universe. Each point is a character. Each line is an interaction between one or more characters. So a first challenge– how do you represent a fictional entity? Now you might think it's a pretty simple exercise. There's an entity. It has attributes. Those attributes are relatively static. So you think of Hawkeye. He has blond hair. He is an archer. He has a purple costume. He shoots arrows. And we modeled characters like this for a long time. And then we started to look at the stories, and we realized that this wasn't a complete look at how characters behave in fiction. The important thing about fiction, and characters in them, is that they change.

So Hawkeye has been a villain. He was Goliath. He was Hawkeye. He was dead. He was Ronin. He came back. And now he's Hawkeye just in time for the movie. Another challenge– comics use bibliographical organization to tell stories. So you might think, OK I've have seen the Captain America movie. I want to read the first issue of Captain America. Where should I start? Oh, Captain America, number one. Well there are six Captain America number ones. This isn't just Marvel. DC just renumbered their entire line about a year ago. And renumbering is actually a way of signaling to an audience that something important has happened in this story, in this character. It's actually part of the comic's experience. By the way, if you actually want to find Captain's first appearance, it's not in a book called Captain America. It's Captain America Comics.

Yes that is Cap punching Hitler in the face. The first book called Captain America starts with issue 100. This type of thing happens all the time in comics. X Men becomes New X Men becomes X Men and then goes back to X Men– goes to X Men Legacy without changing numbering. The Incredible Hulk dropped its main character but kept its numbering. The Deadpool book starts at 900 and counts backwards. Oftentimes bibliographical structures fight against story experience. If you think of stories as an ordered sequence of events– they have a beginning, they have a middle, they have an end– you would expect that the books that organize those stories follow that story in sequence. So in the Spiderman books, you would expect that a story flows from friendly neighborhood Spider Man, to one, to two, to three, to four, and so on. But in order to read this story– it's call Spiderman, The Other– you actually have to read across series.

This is very, very difficult to represent to consumers– to people who have never read a comic book before. So what can you do when you have crazy data like this? Well first, find atoms. Find things that are indivisible– that don't change. And often these atoms are under the hood. They're not in the entity you're used to dealing with. So in the example of characters, we found the thing that is important is not a given set of entity attributes that doesn't change. It's that there are moments in story time where entities have specific attributes. For comics we found that there are indivisible units of story that exist outside of the bibliographical structures. And those units of stories can be organized into new and interesting organizational entities such as storylines, such as character timelines, and things like that. So thanks.

If you're interested in this type of comic arcana, we have a schema.org proposal currently under consideration. And you can get me @dethtron5000. Thanks a lot. [APPLAUSE] FREDDY VEGA: My name is Freddy Vega. I came from the exotic land of South America– Colombia. And I'm here to talk about how we are living in the best age of humanity ever, and that's thanks to education– mainly online education. There's a lot of people talking about online education. Coursera is incredible. EdX is amazing. There's something called Massive Online Open Courses. It's like a MMORPG's, but without the multi-player part. They are doing great things, but online education can be so, so much more. This is a story that starts in 2004. I wanted to learn PHP. There was such an era when PHP was cool. And so I went ahead and used PHP to create Cristalab– a community of web designers and developers.

That community grew a lot. We are right now at two million unique visitors per month. So we decided to create another company. So with Christian Van Der Henst, that guy over there, we created Mejorando la. Mejorando la is a company dedicated to organize courses around Spain and Latin America– courses about HTML5, Node js, Python. We started in 2010, and we've already done 30 courses around 12 countries. And we teach to 3,000 students all of these technologies– HTML5, Python, Node js. We wanted to bring them the best, not just the PHP course. I'm sorry about all the PHP lovers. I'm so, so sorry. These courses are great. And they started to grow incredibly, incredibly popular because we were doing something different. For example I think that copying from the projector, or from a white board is medieval. So we have a central server and other things to copy. But traveling sucks.

Traveling plus 9/11 absolutely sucks. And we were traveling to a different country each week. I was tired of travel, and I wanted to fix online education with a multi-player part. So what's wrong with that Massive Online Open Course that we have right now? Right now Massive Online Open Courses are specialized CMS for text and media. And sadly nothing more. They are doing a great job for bringing the best content on big, huge brand schools to all people for free. But they are lacking the connection to students. Coursera right now has a retention rate of 7%. EdX and Udacity have similar numbers. That means that for each 100 people that try to take a course on Coursera, only seven people finish. Why is that happening? So we tried to create a different kind of system– a different kind of education system that will fix that.

And we were trying to gather inspiration from where people were really spending time. So I tried to earn inspiration from threaded discussions, quota questions, gaming and streaming– a lot of people are spending time over there– and we created something called Platzi. Platzi is online education with that part. We tried to bring that community part to online education. We didn't have any money because funding in Latin America is almost nonexistent, but we did these on-site courses. We used all the money from the on-site courses to create the platform. This is the platform. And it has all the things that you would normally expect from a platform. It has guides, text, media tutorials, and blah, blah, blah. But interesting things are on the right side. That's our question and answer system. A question in our system is only as big as a tweet.

People have to be specific to ask questions. You have nested comments, very similar to a mobile version of Reddit. You have upboats, downboats. We also have a system where people can write answers with Read Text and code without needing to run Markdown or BBCode. Just [INAUDIBLE], as far as I know, is the only one. Our first course generated 40,000 questions. And 99.1% were rightfully answered, mostly by the students, because we were making the best students answer it. And the slow or normal students are being leveled out by those best students. We also have live streaming classes. We are using a technology that enables us to do online streaming in PCs, desktops, mobiles, et cetera. When a teacher wants to share a file, he just right-hand drops, and the students see it on the corner. And if it can be selectable, its colored, et cetera– also for any kind of file. Chats are normally useless. But in our system, the students use the chat as an annotation system and it has the stars, an about. So the system outergenerates a summary of each class automatically, after one of each classes.

In three courses, 97% of the students finish everything. We've done three courses so far. So it works. Our system works. How much have we done this? How many students have we reached? We've done three courses this year. We had 3,400 students, charging $95 to each of them. And right now we have only done this in Spanish. We are really wondering what happens if we do this in the English world. What I want to say is that online education is not about technology. It's not even around who's teaching or who's certifying. It's about finding a way to connect the students to our students, to create the workshops, the study groups, and the things that the students normally do in colleges. And if you want to learn more, if you want to know more about the platform, or you want to say, hey you are wrong, education is like this and like that, please contact me over there on Twitter. Thank you very, very much [APPLAUSE] NATHAN FREITAS: So I was encouraged yesterday at the keynote, hearing about Android and the reach of Google wanting to expand to the rest of the world that we haven't gotten to yet with this technology.

Unfortunately, the rest of the world doesn't always work the way we think it should, and doesn't treat users with the same respect that we think they should. The great firewall might be a familiar term to a lot of you but the problem today is more one of a panopticon– an all-seeing eye at the end of a gun, where every action a user is doing is being surveilled. We're not talking about blocking a site. We're talking about all the activities of a user in their mobile device and their digital life. And the surveillance is crowdsourced. It's not just one firewall. It's every person around you. The onus is on the company, the service provider, the software creator to observe and watch and report and filter to create a harmonious society. It's not about websites anymore. It's about ebooks and apps– filtering them, blocking them, reporting their authors. It's about blocking artists and cultural figures from communicating such as Ai Weiwei's Gangnam Style video, which never reached a mass audience in China. So into this comes an app like WeChat. WeChat is yet another of these all-messaging, all-phone, take all your communications and put it through our app– all with stickers and emoji, and colorful icons, and a whole lot of fun and great marketing.

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So WeChat is a Chinese company. This is what's interesting. It's been growing like crazy since 2012. It's got numbers, WhatsApp numbers, Facebook numbers, Twitter numbers– it has HangOut numbers in and it didn't even auto-install the app. So it's really crazy. So you take this issue that it's a Chinese company working within a Chinese society, and of course you have baggage like restricted keywords happening, right? So keywords being filtered– Tibet, Taiwan, Tiananmen obviously, but much more. Eviction, environment, everything– and now that's exported to the world. So what we've seen is that Hu Jia, a famous Chinese activist, decided, well maybe I can use this WeChat to organize and communicate. And what he found was the opposite. It had made the surveillance state that much more efficient, within an hour, able to report and communicate and interrogate.

Expand this to others in China– Tibetans who have been fighting a battle to have their country back for over 50 years. They gravitate towards smartphones because it helps them communicate to their exile and diaspora family members. At the same time as the rise of WeChat, we've seen a rise in the self-immolation protest, where Tibetans are setting themselves on fire in order to have their voices heard. So of course this is a topic of discussion for Tibetans around the world. They're using WeChat. Of course they are. It's the best way to get information when it's not filtered. And so inevitably we see Tibetan monks being arrested for using WeChat to talk about things that are happening right around them with each other. Instead of texting or calling, they're using this friendly auto-surveillance state app. Now there is a light at the end of this tunnel. There's something that Tibetans are doing themselves. A project called the YakChat, based on code by [? Marley Moxenspike, ?] that uses secure messaging along with delightful icons to create a humorous response to such a bad, onerous problem.

So YakChat is an app that is available for Android. It's open source. But it's not really about WeChat or China or Tibetans. This is really about you. Because the problems in China are quickly becoming problems everywhere. The tools are being commoditized. The software is easy. Everyone knows how to do surveillance state stuff. So you really need to encrypt all the things, right? Because you don't know who might be doing something that someone doesn't like. You could be gay in Uganda, you could be a woman in Saudi Arabia, you could be a journalist just about anywhere, these days. You can't expect the network to behave properly. Man in the middle attacks are normal. CA cert route, pwnage, and exploits are normal. You need to use things like Tor, and build proxying into your applications. Twitter added proxy support into Twitter. Why does your app not have proxy support? You need to expect the internet may not exist. And if you've been at this conference, you can sympathize with that because every single app just falls over and stops working as soon as there's no internet, right? So you need to build in peer-to-peer, mesh.

And finally– well not finally, there's a few more slides– free beer is good. Free stuff is great, especially for activists and people around the world. But you need to consider the impact on speech, and the ability for them to express themselves and to build on your code, and to build on what you've done. So YakChat came out of TextSecure which is an open source project from Moxie. To stop being serious for a moment, emoji are awesome. Emoticons, stickers, emoji– I love these things. People that work in movements that work for change are often very creative and expressive. So you can't make an app that's boring. Ultimately, China is an amazing culture and it's an amazing place. And I want them to take their place in this world. And I love cultures within China. There's so much– the Tibetan culture– you can learn more about China. The reason WeChat is taking off is they know more about us than we know about them.

So you need to take responsibility and make your apps great. And use some of this code we have at Guardian Project to do that. Thank you very much. [APPLAUSE] KIM TECK CHUA: Hello everyone. I'm Kim from Singapore. So as you can see from the slide show, this is the Helix Bridge we have in Singapore. And the reason why it's being named Helix Bridge is because it's part of the DNA structure. And it also represents life. So the topic I'm talking about today is digital afterlife. So, in the 18th and 19th century, when a user actually passes away, how do they actually announce it to the family members and the rest of the people? They do it through word of mouth. So what they would do is that, you tell– OK. You get how many of the gold, how many of the house, and so on. And fast moving forward into the 1960's and through the 1990's, people actually started using a will.

And they would write down in a will how much of this that you will actually get. And moving forward to 2000, we are still living in a written will concept, where we don't have a concept of the digital world. So when a user has passed on, let's say in social media and stuff, the account is actually left vacant. So we can see that in social network, we have more than one billion mildly active users. And this is has actually created a very huge potential. And you can also see that, as more and more users get online, we actually have more online friends than offline friends. So this a page of Larry Page. And I got it from my Google+. We have a lot of information overload where information comes from all around the world, all around the different content, like multiple devices, like, in the day we use the iPhone or we use the Google Android.

And at night, we use the tablet. So we also face, more and more, older generations coming into the online world. So we have seen the younger generation has actually populated the social media online. And from this graph you can actually see that the fastest growth now is actually coming from the older generation. So the question lies within what happens if the user actually passes on to the world, and who will actually take care of all that digital excess, like on the social network. Or if suddenly you find one day, this person no longer updates the posts on Facebook or Google+. As far as the email, we have seen more and more of us are storing a lot of valuable information in emails. What happens to the email accounts if no one is accessing it? And we can really see from financial accounts, like the stock market, 4x, and the rest where we put in a lot of investment in it– a lot of finance and wealth. And what happens if one fine day, we do not have– nobody is aware of what the user has actually put in into the online accounts. And also digital access like Google drive, Cloud, Dropbox, and so on.

So we create a lot of content every day, and this is constantly uploaded to the online storage. And also the online subscriptions, like movies, gaming accounts, and so on. So more and more information is being uploaded and subsequently, everyone is concerned about creating more information. But this also creates a term called the digital black hole, where data is being left vacant on the server. So for all the developers out there, you can see that digital actually grows. And all you need is more storage on the internet. But there will be a problem where you will see, what happens to the inactive data storage out there. It will increase on its own. And nobody is aware of why it's happening over there. So this is a pretty big problem– And of course, missing person in action, where we have our friends, and our online friends, where you won't be actually aware of what happens to each of them until we actually find out from the physical connections. So recently Google actually launched the Google inactive account manager, where it allows the user to set a time time-out period where you will ping the user, after the user doesn't log in after a certain time.

So this is wise as the first step in making the data management more efficient. And of course we will subsequently see more and more relevant services coming out in the market. And the last slide which I want to share is unspoken words. So I'm sure that many of us have many words which we may not say to each and every one of them at certain times of your life. So this is one [INAUDIBLE] of vSwitch I would like to highlight. So thank you. [APPLAUSE] JOYCE KIM: Hi everybody. I'm Joyce Kim and I'm here to talk to you about Korean pop. So quick quiz– how many of these guys do you recognize? On one side we have Kim Jung Un, the Supreme leader of North Korea. In the middle we have Psy, the Korean pop sensation. And the last guy? That's just my baby brother. I threw him in there because he looks like the other guys. So Korea is awesome. Korea has actually been impacting pop culture on the web for quite some time now.

And I'm here to give you a crash course on the industry that brought you Gangnam Style. So Korean pop got its start in 1992, when a band call Seo Taiji Boys debuted on the Korean equivalent to American Idol on TV. They were unlike anything Korea had ever seen. They had electronic music mixed with hip hop. They had these choreographed b-boy moves, and the judges absolutely hated them. They came in dead last. But the very next day, their sales started to go through the roof, and they quickly became the longest running number one hit in Korean history. After that we had a flurry of girl bands and boy bands come up. They look kind of silly to us right now, right? We're not used to seeing groups like this. Really? If we look at the '90s here in the US, it actually wasn't that different. We had the Spice Girls. We had New Kids on the Block. We had the Backstreet Boys. So the reality is that pop music is really about manufactured groups. And if we go back a little bit further in history we can end up in the Motown era.

So Motown came about at a time when TV distribution was new. And for the first time, people really start to care about what the singers looked like. So I want you start thinking about Korean pop as the next iteration of the Motown model, only for the internet era. So let's talk about the people. Korean pop stars, like their Motown predecessors, tend to be ridiculously good looking. And it's not like they went to a school of really hot people, and then decided to make music together. They are assembled this way. They are brought together through a series of intensive auditions and scouting that happens all across the world. And because Korean pop always had its eye on international growth, they really recruit talent that speaks foreign languages.

So these two singers, who are really popular in Korea, are not even Korean. He's Thai-American and she's a Chinese-American rapper from L.A. But both of them speak Korean fluently. So the reason they speak Korean fluently is because most Korean pop stars are put through a very intensive, full-time, two to seven year training program, from audition to debut, where they're trained in everything, from singing and dancing, and of course, more foreign languages. So you're probably asking, why they always so focused in foreign languages. Well it's because the fact that people outside of Korea don't speak Korean. So how do they deal with this challenge? Anybody that's worked with content on the web knows that internationalization is a really hard nut to crack.

So how did Korea take this issue on? It comes down to one fact. Korea is really wired. We have fastest internet in the world. People are always connected. And what this culture of connectedness has created is a nation full of online marketing experts, from StarCraft to Psy. Koreans just really know how to use the web. So Korean music executives– they kind of looked at the situation. They said, you know what, we think we can use the internet to get more fans. But how do you really start to communicate with fans that don't speak the same language as you? One option is photos. And Twitter became a great way of posting photos online to talk to fans that didn't speak the same language as you. Do guys know who this cat is? This cat is more famous than all of us in this room put together. He's owned by a Korean pop star named Hee Chul. And this cat spent most of his 2011 hanging out on the global Twitter trending list alongside Justin Bieber.

And the reason that is, is that Hee Chul would tweet a photo of his cat, and then the internet would just explode, because we know that the internet is powered by cats, so it had that impact. So from here they went to YouTube. YouTube was used really differently. Because they wanted international sales, they started to change the songs and add really catchy repetitive English lyrics, for better or for worse. And the subtitled versions would end up on YouTube. And this allowed non-Korean fans to sing along to the songs that they loved. The other thing they did is they invested really heavily in the music videos. Korean music videos are epic. They're insane. They are designed to tell a story to somebody who doesn't speak the language. You can see that Gangnam Style is kind of the epitome of that trend. So where does Psy fit into all of this? It's kind of interesting to note, in Korea, Psy is represented by an agency called YG Entertainment, one of the top three record labels in Korea. YG was founded by the same singer whose own debut was ridiculed by the judges in 1992.

So Psy is repped by the godfather of Korean pop. Now this guy pretty much hacked television distribution in Korea in 1992 by becoming a breakout success. In the past few years, he's been focused on internet distribution and figuring out how to make that work for K-Pop. So it's no accident that Gangnam Style became a success on YouTube, because this man had spent years focused on internet distribution. So what did you guys know about Korea before you came in? You knew that we make great phones that most of you guys have. You know that we kick ass in StarCraft But now you know that we can dance, and that it's a nation full of user acquisition experts. So hopefully in the past few minutes,I've piqued your curiosity a little bit about Korean pop. If you want to learn more, I made a playlist on YouTube. So you can go to that bit.ly link, slash kpop101 to see some of my favorites and some historic K-Pop videos. Thanks. [APPLAUSE] JOYCE KIM: So they're going to be switching the slide deck.

And they wanted to take a picture of everybody in the meantime. So everybody get up and do your best horsey dance. Or at least put your hands up in the air and smile so this gentleman can take a photo of everybody. Hi everyone! All right great. Oh, one more for him. Thanks, everyone. PANOS PAPADOPOULOS: Thank you very much. Unfortunately, my presentation has no beautiful girls. It's mostly about crisis and money lost. So, you know, I'm from Greece, so I'm the right person to talk about the StartApps and how to save Greece– not. So I'm Panos Papadopoulos. I'm the founder of Bugsense. It's one of the most used Android SDKs in the world, actually after Google and [INAUDIBLE]. And we started during a time of crisis. And a crisis is not something that you're going to react. It's something you have to plan.

Because there is this function, The Kondratieff Wave. And he was an economist in the Soviet Union, and he found out that capitalists have these cycles, so it distracts and recreates. And then he found out that the capitalism is more stable, so they sent him to Siberia. So I was in Greece, when I was a student, and there was the Olympic Games. We were in the Euro. Everything was great. And everybody wanted to be working in the public sector, and be a teacher for 400 years– for 2000. But then they said I have to invest in knowledge. And you know, here we're close. And we're in the news every day, which is awesome, because we have all the TV studios in the world in Syntagma Square– the Doctor Who– we have everyone. If you want to be famous, come to Greece. So then there was– every day you listen to the news.

On Monday, the banks are closed. So I was betting here. I was staying in a motel in Mountain View, dirty. And then I was listening to the mandate there would be no ATM to get money. So you can imagine that's a great time to have a StartApp and you have great psychology. Of course it's not. But what can you do? This is life. Bad things happen, and the only thing we can do is burn the ships and go forward. That's what the Athenians did when they were attacked by the Persians. So what we do? You know, we're developers. You can find a job everywhere. But we wanted to have our own business. And so this advertisement in the airport, for HSBC. Every company is going to be multinational. So you can be [INAUDIBLE] at selling souvenirs to tourists, but you have to speak, like, ten languages. You can even make shoes.

You can sell them online. And of course there's this StartApp movement, which is global. And you can make a business– a thriving business in a weekend– of course not. But everybody in the world can create something online and put it and make money. Of course you knew that already. So it's very easy to do that these days. Everything is flat. You have great services, like Google App Engine, and Twitter, Reddits to promote. We started with Agility Group to find the first market. We hosted the Google App Engine to be scalable. We built an Android with the fastest growing platform. And of course we found code to keep up the with the first iteration. We're didn't start from the scratch. Challenge accepted, yes. Now we're a StartApp.

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We're famous. We're going to be at Tech Runs. We'll be there at [INAUDIBLE]. And this is how you're going to make money after we raise like a few million funds. Of course this is not the way it is when you're in a country in crisis. So you go back to the basics. What I'm going to do here– actually it's about jobs. I want a job for me, first of all. But a StartApp is not freelancing, so you have to find other people. And you have to respect the fact that, in crisis, they feel insecure. So they need a job. They need a job that they can relate to. It can be interesting. You don't want them to go to another country, because it's technology, and it's very challenging. So you have to have a mission. And the mission is self-improvement– self-improvement, personal growth, and of course, have a nice payday at the end of the month. And this is what keeps you going. Because you don't make money all the time, but you have to have a mission when you're in a crisis.

So you're in a crisis. You are the center of the world. But basically you're not in the network. You're not in the network that matters, which is the Silicon Valley, or whatever you do according to your business. So if you're a great developer, you have money. But if you're not a center in the network, this is a problem. And of course revenue matters. Cash flow is king. Your competitors have a lot of money. But you're in crisis. So the only thing you can do is look at this– your cash flow. So yes it's ten Euro cents, or ten drachmas. The next day it's twenty drachmas– it's double– still drachma though. So you are the whole StartApp. And this is the good thing. Journalists, they like the story. You have two guys from Greece. They have to battle with this crisis. So go on, and tell the story. So people love the stories. And you are on the news.

And because you're on the news, you can attract talent. You can attract talent through stories. And of course you have to be a Spartan. Actually, I am. You have to battle, not only because you have to prove yourself to us, because you are from nowhere, but also because of your competitors– you have the perception about yourself that you are a lesser, because you don't have the basic capital, or you're on no Tech Runs. And you have to fight. And then, you know, everything is systemic. You cannot be on your own and make something. You have also to create the ecosystem in your city or your country. We do it in Greece, people do it in Barcelona with Barcelona I/O. So it's not about yourself. It's about the ecosystem of where you are. And then after you have the velocity speed, think big. No, you're not allowed, because there's more StartApp in the crisis. You can do things better. So your competitors are big in the US.

So what? Go away. Go to Japan. Go to Korea. You go to China. There are opportunities everywhere. It's just about the perception. Don't think you are miserable because you're in a country hit by crisis. And of course there is slack. If you are a villager back in 15th-century Europe, you will be a villager for the rest of your life. There's no way to be a cleric or a king. So the US revolution told us, you can't be everywhere. You can try, but there is only lack. So don't blame yourself all the time. It's also a matter of flack if you don't make it. Crisis. That's a varied stereotype, but crisis is an opportunity. So plan for the next crisis and said opportunity is there. [APPLAUSE] MARCO COCHRANE: Hello. So I did "Bliss Dance" for Burning Man in 2010. At the time I had never done anything that big or built anything in that way. And the way I did it was to follow my bliss, and let doors open where I didn't know doors existed.

I'm really interested in patterns and structure in the universe. And I used to dream this every night– triangles and triangles and triangles and triangles. I got into patterns that exist in the universe that are repetitive. And one of them is an attractor that's surrounded by material and energy. If you use that as a model, it's a little scary because there are no straight lines. It's all spirals. So you have to trust that what you need is going to come when you need it. So in the center of this project was a sculpture that I did in 2006. OK. And I did it with Deja Solis, the model. And there's something– one of my favorite pieces. So what I needed to do was enlarge it to 15 feet. And I had never done anything that big before, so I used a panograph, which is in the background there– a tool from 1602– very low tech. That's the armature for the clay. And I put clay all over it.

And it ended up pretty good. There it is. That was the biggest sculpture I had ever done at that point. So the next thing was to draw a pattern on that clay piece. And that was actually a lot of work to figure out how to make all the lines flow together, and build a mold. So that's– you can see the lines drawn on it and the mold. So I needed the mold so I could make a hard copy, so I could use the panograph again to build basically a giant point cloud, that could hold itself up, and deal with high winds and reality. So one of the problems with that is how do I hang these balls in three dimensional space, that I would then connect to. So I had to invent this little tool here that's made out of goose necks and magnets to hold the balls in 3D reality and weld to them. There's 55,000 connections and I couldn't possibly do that myself.

So one of the flow things that happened is people came into my life that I didn't even know, who spent six months at a time for free to help me build this thing. And many other people helped too. One of the other aspects that was really important to me was the beauty of the piece itself. And the structure was much more beautiful than I thought it would be in my mind. And that was really fun– fun to play in and fun to climb on. One of the things that I hadn't even thought of was the color– the lighting system. I hadn't dealt with RGB LEDs before. And somebody put one inside of that structure and it just made it come to life. And it became a big aspect of the sculpture itself. Risk-taking– the face on something– on a sculpture is really important. In doing this wire frame, I had to– I just hoped that when I put mesh on it, it would actually work and be a beautiful face. And it did. I was really happy with it. So that year was total success and wonderful. And the flow happened.

So in 2011, I brought the next piece, which is "Truth is Beauty." This is the torso of it. And I wanted people to be able to climb in it and hang out in this, structure like we had done when we built it. So this year we're bringing the finished product, which will be 55 feet tall. That's the clay version of it to Burning Man this year, so if any of you are going, it will be there. I always like to think big to keep myself motivated. So before I die, I hope that this happens– 200 foot "Bliss Dance" on Alcatraz. That's the Statue of Freedom on a prison. You've got to go for that. So truth is beauty. Your truth is your bliss. And if you find that within yourself, and follow it, doors will open where you didn't know they existed. Thank you. [APPLAUSE] CHARLIE DECK: OK I'm going to shift into a different kind of beauty here because I'm about to share something spectacular and surprising about numbers.

And it all starts with a doodle in 1964, at UC San Diego where this man, Stanislaw Ulam, the legendary mathematician who helped invent the computer and discover nuclear fission, is stuck in a department meeting. And he's bored. But he's a mathematician, so when he's bored he doodles numbers. One, two, three– the numbers are marching out in a spiral. And in his boredom he decides to see what happens when he circles the prime numbers. And when he does something very special does indeed happen. The prime numbers tend to line up along these diagonals. And that defies our intuition that prime numbers are hard to calculate or are distributed in a randomish way along the number line. And it turns out that there is something to these spirals with respect to primes.

And they're called Ulam Spirals after this man. When I found out about them I couldn't wait to start making my own. So I started my own doodle, but this time in code. And I'm going to share some of my explorations. I started simply though, just with the number line– One, two, three, four, in order left to right, top to bottom. The bright squares are primes and the dark squares are everything else. Now I taught my doodle how to go into the Ulam Spiral. And as you can see, we are way more zoomed out than we were a second ago. But you can see just how consistent the pattern of primes is along those diagonals, but also how inconsistent it is. Is this just a coincidence in the noise? Well let's compare it to a grid where I've lit up completely random numbers. And I think that will convince you that there really is something special going on here. But what's really exciting is it's not just this square spiral I constructed triangular spirals, hexagonal spirals, circular spirals, and in each one we see some kind of recognizable, and conspicuous order going on with respect to the primes– they're these little diagonals.

So what's going on? We're curling numbers in a spiral, and for some reason the prime numbers seem to be lining up along these diagonals. Well I went online, I found some code that fits three points to a quadratic equation, plugged that into the doodle, and I went and saw what would happen. And it was incredible. It turns out that these diagonals line up perfectly along just that kind of equation. I could select a given arm in the prime– in the number spiral, I mean. And that meant I could address the question of whether we're seeing the same order across these different spirals. Is the prime-rich vein in one spiral the same as the prime-rich vein in another? Well in my doodle, I had all the features already there, so I could see for myself. This is just a tiny selection of all the different possibilities I could have shown you, but I think you can see that there is a relationship there. But it's complex.

And it's varied. And this– you know, from here I could construct more complicated arrangements of numbers, or maybe we could look at semi-primes or perfect numbers. But there's even more beauty if we go simpler. And what's simpler than prime numbers is just simple multiples. And these are the same number spirals, but I'm just highlighting 22, 44, 66, 88– multiples along those spirals. And if I animate the multiple that I'm highlighting, you get a whole secondary pattern that– like a perceptual phenomenon that emerges from the underlying patterns. And again, I mean I cut this talk in half, and half again. There's so much more I could share with you, but I want to leave you with two big picture points. And one is about the process, that my doodle was just as casual as the original doodle in that department meeting. It's just the product of some procrastination, a little bit of creative coding, and I got to experience the thrill of exploring some of these ideas for myself. That can and that should be one of the joys of having some coding skills.

Our skills are like a prosthesis or an amplifier for imagination. And that's not just an empty platitude. The second point is about why it's important to look at something so abstract this way. In the platonic sense, these patterns have always been here. They always will be here. It's like the sound of a tree falling in the woods, but it's always there whenever we bother to tune into it. Perceiving and appreciating this kind of abstract phenomenon is one of the joys of being a thinking human being in this day and age. And algebra and taxes and spreadsheets– they might have turned us off from numbers, but never forget that just below the surface, there's a startling and magical beauty. It's just a simple one, two, three. You can play with the tool that I used– or that I made– the doodle. It's at primes.io. My name's Charlie Deck. My ID is Bigblueboo. Thanks a lot.

[APPLAUSE] LIRON SHER: Good afternoon, everyone. My name is Liron Sher. I'm an Israeli entrepreneur. I'm here to speak about the Israeli StartApp ecosystem, and how it is to be an entrepreneur. So I just started my journey about one year ago. Of course, I'm from Tel Aviv. And basically, Tel Aviv is the capital of StartApp in Israel. We have some StartApp in Be'er Sheva and Haifa, but the most StartApp ecosystem is in Tel Aviv. You can see that if you throw a dime in Tel Aviv, you going to hit a StartApp. It may be a StartApp, it may be an accelerator– everything you need in order to be a StartApp, you have in Tel Aviv. So come to Tel Aviv. It's very good for to make a StartApp. But in order to make a StartApp, you have to get a cool idea. Everybody in Israel thinks you have an idea, because we've been through the army. We can do everything. So we think we can do a StartApp. But not all the StartApp in Israel are successful.

Some of them– most of them, less. But you have to have a big idea in order to get a StartApp in Israel. So my first tip for you, get a good idea. Do a good idea, so it can last– in order to get your StartApp. And then, before you can go to the StartApp journey, to be an entrepreneur, think about yourself. Are you up to it? Can you be an entrepreneur? Can you do a StartApp? Can you be a CEO? Because if you're not up to it, give up. Go be a salary man. But if you can do it, just do it. And then, build your A-Team. Build the one that will help you to go this long journey of StartApp. They have to be a good guy. They have to be the best guys. They have to be a tech guy. Get the guy that will complete you as you can. But then, are your partners up to it? Find out first that if you have the tech guy that's very good in tech, will he help you do it your way? Will he be there? Will his family support your friend there? Think about it before you choose your colleagues through this long journey.

This is what I can share with you. Now find the business model. You have to find the business model for your StartApp. I found four business models for my StartApp, so I recommend you to find at least two business models for your StartApp. Otherwise, don't think about starting developing. Don't do anything before you find a business model. And think about the user. Will you use your StartApp? Will you use your application? Are you going to be the user? Because if not, give up. You have to think about the user and what they're going earn from using your application. Then you look for money. Every angel can say, hey, you have a good idea, but show me some traction, and I will give you some money. But then, if I have traction, why do I need money? If I have traction, I would have already the egg. It's like the chicken and the egg. So then you find yourself bootstrapping. You leave your company– you leave your day to day job and start bootstrapping your company. OK. What next? Every day you have to build something. And then what do you want to do? Then you think about what is the MVP– minimum viable product? Because you cannot build everything while you are bootstrapping. So from one end you have to be as minimal as you can.

From the end, you have to get more users in order to get the money. So think about what is your MVP before you go into market. And then we are doing mobile application, so we have to choose what you're going to do, Android or iPhone. People are still using iPhone these days, so you cannot neglect them, especially in Israel. And then you find out that you want to use HTML5. One year ago, HTML5 was very hard to debug. Also it doesn't work the same on every iPhone and Android. You find yourself working differently on two Android devices. So what should you do? But my app is viral. So if I develop only for Android, I will miss half of the market. So we decide to develop natively iPhone and Android at the same time. I find myself writing Java code and x code, and I said otherwise reversal. And then we try to find out backend. What is the best backend for you? I recommend going Google App Engine, but if you're not a Python developer or Java developer, how can you use the Google App? That's how it was back then.

So we decided to go to Amazon Web Services. So Amazon Web Services is a great tool. They have great tools to scale up, but you have to be an IT guy in order to work with Amazon. So my recommendation for you, if you're going for Amazon, just to be an IT guy. And now we released our MVP. Our MVP is ready. We're sending it to all our customers. And everybody is saying, where is this feature, where is that feature? And you have to tell your friends what is MVP, because nobody except everyone knows what is MVP. My name is Liron Sher. And I hope I've enlightened you to something about Israel and StartApps. And thank you very much. [APPLAUSE] BUNNIE: Hi everybody. I'm Bunnie. I'm also hailing from Singapore. And I'm here to talk to you today about an ecosystem that I've been exploring in China called the gongkai ecosystem. It's kind of about how ideas get shared in China, China-style. A hobby of mine is I like to go to Shenzhen, every now and then and look for wacky pieces of hardware. This one here is it looks like a mouse, except for the screwed up logo.

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But when you go ahead and you turn it over, you find that on the inside– advance slide, advance slide– there is in fact a full GSM phone on the inside complete with a camera. It makes calls and so forth– rather funny. A more serious kind of application you can find out there, sort of unique, is they have this phone which is for children. It's a child's safety phone. It only allows you to dial five numbers, so your kids can't text message other kids in class, and so on and so forth. It's an interesting sort of application of the technology out there. Other devices that I have also found out there that I found very interesting is this one, which is a phone. It looks kind of plain. But the interesting thing about it is that it's $12. And it was kind of the retail price.

It wasn't with a contract. Which means that the actual cost of manufacturing was less than $12, probably around $8 or $10. So of course, I buy it and I take it apart to see how the heck they do this. I find on the inside they've got a multi 100 megahertz arm CPU, with 8 megabytes of memory, a Bluetooth, quad-band GSM– all this kind of cool stuff. And I go, geez, I really want to build one these. How do they do this? So I go on the net and I start looking around. And I find I can actually download the PCB files. I can download the schematics. I can go ahead and actually source the chips in the markets, and they're only, like, two bucks. Why haven't I seen more StartApp doing this kind of stuff, is what I wonder. And when you take a look at the StartApps that they do in China, a lot of them are around phones, whereas in the US, a lot of the StartApps are around "app-cessories." They don't actually build phones themselves.

They build stuff that work with phones. And I wonder is it because maybe there's no economic incentive to actually build phones. And that's not the case. There's a company in China called Xiaomi that was founded in 2010, and two years later it was valued at $4 billion, half that of Nokia. So clearly there's an economic incentive to go ahead and build these kinds of phones. In fact, the thing is that if you look at the documentation you get, they've got confidential written all over it. They have dubious copyright terms, and so on and so forth. So in fact, there's an IP barrier that is presented for people who are trying to build these things from the West. Now this set of terms here, which we are all very familiar with, means about as much to the people in Chinese as if we were to fill this with Chinese characters to you. They don't know, you know, confidential, DMCA, patents– all these sorts of things. They kind of just– they're in an ecosystem that is free of these kinds of things.

So it's interesting that in China I can access the designs. And so the kind of open, and sort of the end result– well it's not really open with the big "O." It's not open in terms of GPL, or Creative Commons, or these kinds of things. Fortunately in Chinese, they actually have different words for big O Open, like Foss, which is kaifung, and open with a little "O" which means you can just sort of share it, and it's out there. It's called gongkai. And in order to sort of differentiate and sort of– if I told people, oh I'm looking at the open harder ecosystem in China, people would be like, you're crazy. It's not actually open. So I just call it the gong kai, harder ecosystem, to sort of differentiate between what would be the open ecosystem versus just a simple open access ecosystem. It's interesting to look at sort of now the kind of mainstream platforms per ecosystem.

So in the Western open style, we have the Ardweno. It's probably the most popular one. It's 15 megahertz CPU you can buy it for $29 in SparkFun. And then you go ahead and you look at the gongkai ecosystem. And if you remember we have these devices that are like 200 megahertz and quad-band GSM, and they cost about $12. And of course they're not legally licenses open, but these schematics, the sharings of all the blueprints and the plans through the different people out there enable them to go ahead and slot these into other products, which enable them to do things, wacky things, like put a phone inside of a mouse, or make a phone with only five buttons so your kids can use it, or just sell outright phones for $12. So people then ask me– or like, kind of the next question is, how does the system work in the face of such theft. Is it the case that the consumers are just paying the entrepreneurs– thieves, if you will– and they're taking all the value, which would be the case if they were just, like, stealing software music. In fact the entrepreneurs have to rely on the entire value ecosystem behind them. They have to rely on contract manufacturers and brands, channels, supply chains– they have to buy the chips from the people who they're stealing the documentation from.

And people have to get SIM cards with the carriers and so forth. So in fact all the players still make money, it's just distributed a little bit differently. There's a little more money for the people at the bottom, and the carriers and the chip manufacturers don't have quite as much control. So that is about the quickest introduction I can give you to the gongkai ecosystem. There's a lot more stories to tell. Thanks very much. [APPLAUSE] JAISEN MATHAI: Hello my name is Jaisen. So let's talk about the preservation of human history. And there's something that all of us in this room have in common, and it's that we all have a story. And as humans, we're actually natural storytellers. So I'm going to go into my story a little bit, and it starts back with my mother, back in 1955. This is a picture of her family– her brothers, sisters, parents, and grandparents. Some of these people aren't even living anymore.

These are not miserable people. Indians don't smile in any photographs. But this is where my story starts. If you fast forward a little bit to 1981, this is what my parents would send me out of the house looking like on the day that they take pictures of kids. You can see the disgust on my face. But this is evidence that I'll show you in a little bit of something. This is actually one of my favorite pictures that I have. I despise fishing. I'm not patient enough for it. But this is a photo of my father and myself– apparently I caught something and it was a picture worthy. So, fast forward a little bit more. This is a photo of me and my grandfather. He's passed away, and he lived in India. I grew up in the US. So the time that I did get to spend with him was very, very valuable. And so this is part of my story. And I've told it to a lot of people. But the interesting thing is, in 2010, I wasn't just a storyteller anymore.

I became a story preserver when I had my son. And so it really started changing how I looked at all this content that I'm taking. I have a bunch of pictures of my kids. But it doesn't start there. We have to go back, like, 5,000 years, when the ancient Egyptians were writing hieroglyphics on the walls of caves so that future generations could see them, little knowing that people would be devoting their entire lives 5,000 years later studying that content. And it's very sad for me to stand up here and say that technology has really failed us in this aspect. It's much more easier for us to capture moments like photos and videos, but it's more increasingly easy for us to lose all of that content as well. And so this happens by– is users– what people do is upload all their content to any number of service providers. And in doing so, we then entrust the service provider to not only maintain our data, but to preserve our data.

And the internet, if it's proven one thing, it's that that doesn't work. It's like handing our car keys to these guys and hoping that when they're done parking and bringing it back, that everything is still in the glove compartment. But what if we could actually write applications in a way that's different from how we had done in the past, giving us something similar to what car manufacturers do with a valet key. And if you're thinking, oh well, that doesn't actually solve the problem that I'm talking about. And so Albert Einstein once had a quote. He said that you cannot change the problems by using the same thinking that you did when you created them. And so what I'd like to do is ask all of us to stop thinking about the way that we've always developed applications since the start of the internet.

This is a photo. This is really important stuff. This is a photo that was found in the notebook of a soldier during the Holocaust. And on the back of it, it was written, The Last Jew of Vinnitsa. This has become one of the most valuable artifacts of the Holocaust. And so– I lied. Technology hasn't actually failed us yet. But this is where we have to actually think about writing applications and services for users that put data portability and data ownership as first class citizens. And for me I'm most passionate about the decoupling of data storage and application logic, and how that can apply to software that users and companies use. And as a result I started to open source project called the Open Photo Project, which is now called Trovebox. It's 100% open source. And the purpose of this is to provide a service for individual users and organizations to allow them to have 100% data portability and ownership of all of their content.

And so we have Android applications. We have iPhone applications. We have a web application. And an entire API stack and language findings in every popular language. And all of this is available on GitHub. And so what we've done is we started this initially on Kickstarter. We went and partnered with Mozilla as part of the WebFWD program, and we received funding from the Shuttleworth Foundation, which was started by Mark Shuttleworth. And we're off to really great start. But what I'm here today is to try to get as many people to help us, either by participating in the project that we've done, or start thinking about this in the applications that you build. How can you decouple data storage from application logic, so that when a service ends up shutting down, all of your user data doesn't go along with it. This is all the information if you want to chat with me afterwards, or catch me on Twitter. Thank you. [APPLAUSE] BRADY FORREST: Thank you very much. So we've got just one more speaker.

He's a good friend of mine. We worked together at Microsoft, and been to Burning Man a couple of times. And this year he's got two books out. And so he's here to talk about your brain on Google. Please welcome Ramez Naam. RAMEZ NAAM: Awesome. Thank you Brady. My name is Ramez Naam. I write science fiction. And I have a novel out that's about the ultimate Google I/O The I/O of electronics and data directly into your brain. Now you already know about this topic in your familiarity with great American philosophers, like this man– Keanu Reeves, who said I know Kung Fu What I'm here to tell you about is that this is no longer just science fiction. It's actually becoming science fact. And the motivator is not Hollywood, it's medicine. We already have cyborgs among us. In particular, a number of people around the world carry the cochlear implant. The cochlear implant looks like it's a hearing aid.

You'll see a photo of it in a moment. But it's not actually a hearing aid. It's a device that picks up sound from the environment around you, and then bypasses the ear entirely and beams it into Keanu over and over and over and over again. No, it picks up sound, and bypasses the ear, actually transforms sound into nerve impulses in the auditory nerve that go straight into the human brain, unlike a normal hearing aid that just cleans up sound and plays backsound. So it's actually interfacing one type of data to the brain. And as a result about 200,000 people around the world, like this four-year-old girl who is hearing for the first time, are now cyborgs who can hear because we've learned to do that. We've also taken data from inside the brain and sent it out into digital systems. This man, Johnny Ray, was paralyzed by a stroke, that him– left him unable to move from the neck down, unable even to speak, only able to blink.

But his doctors implanted the first ever human brain implant in the motor cortex that allows him to, by thinking about it, move a cursor on an on board screen– online keyboard– and type out messages to his friends and family. Which is a big quantum leap up from blinking once for yes and twice for no. And now this tech is moving towards actual approval as a medical technology. This woman last year was implanted with the top of its line system that allows her to control a multi-access robot arm. And what you see is that she's feeding herself coffee for the first time. We've also sent vision into the brain. This man, Jens, was rendered blind age 19. At age 40, this cyborg eye was implanted. It captures images and then it sends them into a jack in the back of his skull, straight into his visual cortex. And it restores vision, of a crappy kind, but a quantum leap up. Now humans have more than just sensory data and motor data. We also have these higher functions.

Who here has seen the film "Memento"? Some of you. Well this character Lenny can't form long term memories because of damage to part of his brain called the hippocampus. So seeking to fix that, doctors and scientists have built a hippocampo prosthesis– a chip that simulates that part of the brain. And in erratic experiments, it's able to restore the memory of rats with brain damage, and actually go beyond that and give them super memory. These rats learn better than normal healthy rats. Now we've gone better to that and we've gotten into decision-making and IQ. These monkeys have had their performance on a monkey IQ test– a pick and match test– degraded by repeated doses of cocaine. They think they've got better, but they didn't. But a chip implanted in their frontal cortex can actually restore them back to normal and beyond.

They got about 10 points better scores on these tests than normal, healthy monkeys with this frontal cortex chip, which of course leads to the cyborg Planet of the Apes. Now we don't just use computers for thinking or calculating anymore. We use them as communication devices. And that's where this will become transformative. Because if we can send data in and out of one brain, we can transfer it between multiple brains. Now Dartmouth is very interested in this. Their Enhanced Battlefield Communications program has funded this study, which takes two monkeys in separate rooms, sound proof, with electrodes in their auditory cortices. And they play a sound for one monkey, and monkey two can hear that sound and can identify what it is. In humans, we've even put people in FMRI machines. We've shown them images like the one on the left, and the image on the right is reconstructed by an algorithm looking at the brain scan, and nothing else. It's not very good yet, but you can kind of see that it can tell what's going on. And the folks who brought you enhanced rat memory are working on wiring together memory chips from two different rat brains to see if they can really get to the point where a rat can say, I know Kung Fu.

Now there are many, many, many hurdles to this. Voluntary brain surgery is not that common yet. It's going to be a while until it's good enough. And there's questions. What if it crashes? I mean, no computers are perfect. What if you get a virus? No computers are totally secure. What if you get malware or a phishing scam? Those are all very good questions. But I think the biggest questions actually are societal. Who gets to control this technology if it's in your head? Is it a bottoms up thing? Can we hack it ourselves? Do we own the data? Or is it top down– imposed on us. Can someone snoop on our thoughts or worse? So those are the fun questions I get to attack in the novel. I hope you'll check it out. And I look forward to a true super Google I/O one day. Thank you. [APPLAUSE] BRADY FORREST: Thank you very much, Mez. And that concludes Ignite. Thank you all for coming.

Thank you Google for hosting us again. And you can find these videos later at Ignite show and on our Twitter feed. Cheers. .